Clinical & Research
Unintended pregnancies cost 11 billion each year in the US . The IUD is regarded as the most cost-effective reversible contraceptive solution [2,3,4]. However, fear of pain or reported severe pain at the IUD placement remains an acceptance barrier [5,6,7,8]. Lots of attempts to reduce the pain have been reported in the literature by changing the design of tenaculum  or by applying anesthetics, all without success [5,10]. The grasping quality or the waiting time until the anesthetic alleviates the pain are unacceptable.
- “The Public Costs of Births Resulting from Unintended Pregnancies: National and State-Level Estimates.”, Sonfield, Adam, Kathryn Kost, Rachel B. Gold, and Lawrence B. Finer, Perspective on Sexual and Reproductive Health 43.2 (2011): 94-102
- “Contraceptive failure in the United States”, Trussell J., Contraception 2011;83:397–404
- “Effectiveness of long-acting reversible contraception”, Winner B, Peipert JF, Zhao Q, Buckel C, Madden T, Allsworth JE, Secura GMN Engl J Med. 2012 May 24; 366(21):1998-2007.
- “Cost Effectiveness of Contraceptives in the United States”, James Trussell, & all., Contraception. 2009 Jan; 79(1): 5–14
- “Interventions for pain with intrauterine device insertion”, Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015 Jul 29; (7) CD007373, Lopez LM, Bernholc A, Zeng Y, Allen RH, Bartz D, O’Brien PA, Hubacher D.
- “Practical advice for avoidance of pain associated with insertion of intrauterine contraceptives”, Luis Bahamondes, Diana Mansour, Christian Fiala, Andrew M Kaunitz, Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, J Fam Plann Reprod Health Care 2014;40:54–60.
- “Use of the levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine system in nulliparous women – a non-interventional study in Sweden”, Marions L, Lövkvist L, Taube A, et al. , Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care2011;16:126–134
- “Cervical priming with misoprostol prior to transcervical procedures”, Fiala C, Gemzell-Danielsson K, Tang OS, et al., Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2007;99(Suppl. 2):S168–S171
- “Effect of an atraumatic vulsellum versus a single-tooth tenaculum on pain perception during intrauterine device insertion: a randomized controlled trial”, Nora Doty, Laura MacIsaac, Contraception 92 (2015) 567–571.
- “Prophylactic ibuprofen does not improve pain with IUD insertion: a randomized trial”, Paula H. Bednareka, Mitchell D. Creininb, Matthew F. Reevesc, Carrie Cwiakd, Eve Espeye, Jeffrey T. Jensena, Contraception 91 (2015) 193–197.